Robert Mark, Ph.D.

Chief Scientist

Robert K. Mark, Ph.D.

Chief Scientist at Rupestrian CyberServices

3644 N. Stone Crest Street

Flagstaff, AZ 86004-6811

Phone (928) 526-3625






    Rupestrian CyberServices (1998 to present)

    US Geological Survey (1974-1997)

    UCLA Dept.of Earth and Planetary Science (1971-1974)





 Stanford University Geology         Ph.D. 1972

 Stanford University Physics/Math MS 1969

 City College of NY Physics/Math BS 1964


     FAA Remote Pilot Certificate (2016)

     CHI Photogrammetry Class( 3D models) (2014)

     ArcView Class (2005)

     Arizona Archaeological Society Rock Art Recording Field School (1998)

     Apple QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR), Apple Developer University  (1996)

     ArcView & Avenue Programming, ESRI (1995)

     Archaeometry, Stanford Univ. Continuing Education (1995)

     What's new in ARC/INFO 7.0  (1995)

     Introduction to ArcView  (1995)

     Spatial Modeling  (1994)

     Overview of ERDAS IMAGINE  (1994)

     Customizing ARC/INFO with AML (1994)

     Introduction to ARC/INFO GRID (1991) and Advanced ARC/INFO (1992)

     Training in archaeological site protection (National Park Service, 1989)

     Rock Art Site Management and Protection (Getty Conservation Inst., 1989)



Rock Art Site Documentation Specialties


Digital image enhancement, panoramic photography,GIS, statistical modeling, and multimedia techniques are applied to rock art studies, site management, and public education.

Professional Associations



             Research Associate, Museum of Northern Arizona

             Practitioner Associate, Dept. of Anthropology, Northern Arizona University



             American Association for the Advancement of Science, Geological Society of America, American Geophysical Union, Sigma XI, American Rock Art Research Assn. Conservation Committee, Utah Rock Art Research Assn., Eastern States Rock Art Research Assn., Australian Rock Art Research Assn., Society for American Archaeology, Arizona Archaeological Society, and National Assn. of Photoshop Professionals.



             In Who's Who in Rock Art, a worldwide directory of specialists / scholars in the field of rock art, 1996.

Awards – jointly won with Evelyn Billo


             Oliver Award for Excellence in Rock Art Photography 2002

             ARARA Conservation and Preservation Award 1999


Joined Rupestrian CyberServices as Chief Scientist in 1998 to provide technical services to rock art site managers and others.  Services include rock art site recording, high resolution photography and digital image enhancement, linking images, to maps, scanning and archiving research materials, comparing archival images with current rock art condition, image database creation, and production of multimedia projects for education or management.



Major contracts and grants in past decade: Rupestrian CyberServices has provided rock art recording services including mapping, photographing, and assessing rock art condition for the:

•     Bureau of Land Management (BLM) WY: UAV (drone) mapping (2016).

•     National Park Service: documenting rock art sites in Carlsbad NP, Guadalupe Mtns NP, Big Bend NP (2015-17).

•     Developed and released free image enhancement app LabStretch for iPads and iPhones.

•     Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Yuma Field Office: Sears Point, Arizona 2008-2012.

•     Bureau of Reclamation, Boise, ID: Watson site documentation using iPad in association with Dr. Johannes Loubser, 2011-2012.

•     Glen Canyon National Recreation Area/Vermillion Cliffs Alliance, Colorado River, Glen Canyon Dam to Lees Ferry, Arizona, 2010.

•     Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department (NNHPD) Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Program, 2010

•     Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) Big Springs State Park, Texas, in association with Dr. Johannes Loubser, 2009.

•     National Park Service (NPS) Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, 2006-2009.

•     TPWD Devils River State Natural Area, Texas, 2008-2010.

•     TPWD Seminole Canyon State Park and Historic Site, Texas, 2003-2004.

•     U.S. Army, Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Colorado, in association with Dr. Lawrence Loendorf, 2001-2005.

•     NPS Lava Beds National Monument, California, 2004.

•     NPS Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona, in association with Dr. Lawrence Loendorf, 2000-2003.




Additional projects:

•     Starting in 2009, RCS has provided high-resolution Gigapan imagery to Shumla School, Carlsbad Canyon National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (Hueco Tanks State Historic Park), and the Lincoln National Forest.

•      RCS assessed wildfire impacts to rock art sites near Winnemucca, Nevada and Newcastle, Wyoming for the BLM.

•      Innovative panoramic photography of Desert View Watchtower murals in Grand Canyon National Park provided to Hopi Iconography Project at the Museum of Northern Arizona.

•      Recorded rock art sites, created maps and GIS databases with rock art images linked to GIS or Acrobat files for the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (Hueco Tanks State Historic Site), and for the DuBois, Wyoming Museum (Wind River area).

•      Created interactive CD for museum use at Deer Valley Rock Art Center, Phoenix, Arizona and for the Kaibab National Forest (Keyhole Sink), Arizona.

•      Provided image enhancement assistance to Jean Clottes, director of the Chauvet Cave research project in France, Matthias Strecker, SIARB at sites in Bolivia, Museum of Northern Arizona (MNA) Hopi Iconography project among others. Images and panoramas published in National Geographic, NMA Plateau, SIARB Bulletin, etc.




Selected Publications


Over forty five scientific publications and absrtacts for presentations dealing with diverse aspects of rock art, digital image enhancement, site documentation, conservation, and management. Three multimedia CDs produced. One (USGS) contains Quick Time Virtual Reality rotatable images of the planets and solid moons. Others (RCS) contains a QTVR panorama of a public rock art site with close up images linked to hot spots.


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RCS: Computer science in the service of rock art research, protection, and education.